As cannabis cultivation is increasingly regulated and scrutinized, how will production patterns change? Compared to our highly industrialized agricultural economy, can a different model emerge for cannabis, one that fosters sustainability for ecosystems, farmers, and producer communities? Focusing on California, we explore how industrialization of cannabis agriculture is already underway. We consider the social and ecological implications of this transition. We see an urgent need for interdisciplinary, mixed-methods collaboration in the period prior to full industrialization in order to steer regulation toward sustainable outcomes for social and ecological communities.