Jennifer Carah
Senior Scientist
The Nature Conservancy
portrait photo
Jennifer works to protect and restore stream flows and address limiting factors to salmonid recovery in California.



Dillis, C., Bodwitch, H., Carah, J., Power, M., Sayre, N.

The Routledge Handbook of Interdisciplinary Cannabis Research

Will regulation of cannabis production lead to its industrialization? Can more sustainable models emerge for communities and the environment?


Dillis, C., Butsic, V., Carah, J., Zipper, S.C. and Grantham, T.

Environmental Research Communications

Well water irrigates California’s top-producing cannabis farming regions. Why? What are the impacts?


Dillis, C., Biber, E., Bodwitch, H., Butsic, V., Carah, J., Parker-Shames, P., Polson, M. and Grantham, T.

Land Use Policy

How has legalization shaped patterns of farm location, size, land ownership, and regulatory compliance in California?


Wilson, H., Bodwitch, H., Carah, J., Daane, K., Getz C., Grantham, T. E., & Butsic, V.

California Agriculture

Cannabis legalization opens opportunities to study and share best practices. Our survey of growers reveals starting points.


Bodwitch, H., Carah, J., Daane, K. M., Getz C., Grantham, T. E., Hickey, G. M., & Wilson, H.

California Agriculture

Small cannabis farms are common. Permit licenses are not. A survey of grower incentives and economic implications of California's cannabis legalization.


Butsic, V., Carah, J., Baumann, M., Stephens, C. & Brenner, J.C.

Environmental Research Letters

How does California’s rapid expansion of cannabis agriculture into "frontiers" of sensitive habitat compare to regulatory investments? What does this portend for global cannabis frontiers?


Carah, J. K., Howard, J. K., Thompson, S.E., Short Gianotti, A. G., Bauer, S.D., Carlson, S. M., Dralle, D. N., Gabriel, M., Hulette, L., Johnson, B.J., Knight, C. A., Kupferberg, S., Martin, S., Naylor, R., and Power, M.


Investment in research, policy and governance can address negative impacts of cannabis cultivation to the environment.